Reports about Behavioral and Social Health in the Military

Last Updated: January 22, 2024
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Military behavioral and social health epidemiology is the technical process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting various data inputs to identify and assess trends in outcomes such suicidal behavior, depression, anxiety, substance use, and sexual harassment and assault.

These public health activities include:  

  • Public health monitoring and surveillance of military population-level data.
  • Leveraging Department of Defense Suicide Event Reports (DoDSERs) to support understanding of suicidal behavior in response to requests for information from military leaders and stakeholders.
  • Providing installation and unit commanders with targeted findings from investigations and Epidemiological Consultations (EPICONs) of behavioral and social health outcomes of Service members to inform implementation of related policies and programs. 
Evidence and guidance derived from military behavioral and social health epidemiology is captured in periodic publications, scientific journal articles, and communication products.

Periodic Publications:

  • Behavioral Health Monitoring Report​
    • November 2023:​ Behavioral Health Monitoring among Active Duty US Army Soldiers, 2016-2020​
  • Surveillance of Suicidal Behavior Publication (SSBP)
    • September 2023​​: Surveillance of Suicidal Behavior: U.S. Army Active and Reserve Component Soldiers, 2019 and 2020
    • October 2019: Surveillance of Suicidal Behavior: U.S. Army Reserve Component Soldiers, January-December 2017
    • January 2019: Surveillance of Suicidal Behavior: U.S. Army Active and Reserve Component Soldiers, January-December 2018 
  • Mortality Surveillance Report
    • July 2022: Mortality Surveillance in the U.S. Army, 2014-2019 
  • Surveillance of Substance Abuse and Dependence
    • October 2021:​External Link​ Surveillance of Substance Abuse and Dependence: U.S. Army Soldiers, January 2016-December 2019 

Scientific Journal Articles:


  • February 2023:External Link​ Beymer, MR, Apostolou, A, Smith CM, Paschane, DM, Gomez, SAQ, James, TD, Bell, AM, Santo, T, Quartana, PJ. Mental Health Outcomes Among American Indian and Alaska Native U.S. Army Soldiers: A Serial Cross-Sectional Analysis. Mil Med. 2023 Feb 27; 188(7-8):e2292–e2299. PMID:36848142.
  • April 2023:External Link​ Beymer MR, Gomez SAQ, Santo TJ, Bell AM, Quartana PJ. COVID-19 Vaccination Attitudes and Intentions among U.S. Soldiers: Results from the U.S. Army Behavioral Health Advisory Team (BHAT). J Community Health. 2023 Apr; 48(2):228-237. PMID:36370254.
  • April 2023:External Link​ Baker MD, Southard MA, Beymer MR, Riviere LA. U.S. National Guard Service Members Decedent Recovery and Processing Operations during the COVID-19 Pandemic in New York City. Mil Psychol. 2023 April 20;35(5):431-439. PMID: 37615552. 
  • September 2023:External Link​ Quartana PJ, Beymer MR, Gomez SAQ, Thomas JL, Adler AB, Jackson Santo T, Millikan Bell A. COVID-19 Concerns, Information Needs, and Adverse Mental Health Outcomes among U.S. Soldiers. Mil Med. 2023 Sep 16:usad350. PMID: 37715687. 
  • September 2023:External Link​ Dean FM, Beymer MR, Schaughency KCL, Kaplansky GF, Allman MWR, Anke KM. Cross-Sectional Examination of Physical Abuse Victimization Differences between Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Service Members in the U.S. Military, 2018. LGBT Health. 2023 Sep;10(S1):S70-S78. PMID: 37754919. 
  • October 2023:External Link​ Gomez AQ, Beymer MR, Santo TJ, Riviere LA, Adler AB, Thomas JL, Bell AM, Quartana PJ. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Army Families: Household Finances, Familial Experiences, and Soldiers' Behavioral Health. Mil Psychol. 2023 Sep-Oct;35(5): 420-430. PMID: 37615551.
  • October 2023:External Link​ Riviere LA, Kim P, Baker MD, Beymer MR. Training, Deployment Preparation, and Behavioral Health of New York National Guard Personnel Deployed to Assist with COVID-19 Decedent Work. Military Medicine, 2023 October 17; usad395.


  • January 2022:External Link​ Rabbitt MP, Beymer MR, Reagan JR, Jarvis BP, Watkins EY.  Food Insecurity Among Active Duty Soldiers and their Families during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Public Health Nutr. 2022 Jan 24; 25(8):1-8. PMID: 35067266.
  • April 2022:External Link Yu B, Barnett D, Menon V, Rabiee L, De Castro YS, Kasubhai M, Watkins, E. (2022) Healthcare Worker Trauma and Related Mental Health Outcomes during the COVID-19 Outbreak in New York City. PLoS ONE. 2022 Apr 29;17(4):e0267315. PMID:35486610. 
  • May 2022:External Link​ Smith JD, Beymer MR, Schaughency KCL. The Association Between Two Bogus Items, Demographics, and Military Characteristics in a 2019 Cross-Sectional Survey of U.S. Army Soldiers. MSMR. 2022 May 1; 29(5): 18-22. PMID:36250850.
  • May 2022:​External Link​ Adler AB, Gutierrez IA, Gomez SAQ, Beymer MR, Jackson Santo T, Thomas JL, Cates DS, Millikan Bell A, Quartana PJ. US Soldiers and the Role of Leadership: COVID-19, Mental Health, and Adherence to Public Health Guidelines. BMC Public Health. 2022 May 11;22(1):943. PMID: 35546398. 
  • July 2022:External Link​ Beymer MR, Nichols JN, Watkins EY, Jarvis BP, Ambrose JF, Shafir SC, Jeffery DD. Suicide Behavior among Heterosexual, Gay/Lesbian, and Bisexual Service Members in the United States Military. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. 2022 Jul 1;29(7):19-24. PMID: 36250491.


  • May 2021:External Link​ Watkins EY, Beymer MR, Johnson L, Ball JD, Benedict T, Ross MC, Bibio D, Maule A, Engen C. Translating Public Health Recommendations Using the Army Design Methodology. Mil Med. 2021 May;188(3-4): e857-e862. doi: 10.1093/milmed/usab173. PMID: 34009378.
  • May 2021:External Link​ Jeffery DD, Beymer MR, Mattiko MJ, Shell D. Health Behavior Differences Between Male and Female Military Personnel by Sexual Orientation: The Importance of Disaggregating Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Groups.  Mil Med. 2021 May 3; 186(5-6): 556-564. PMID: 33306807. 
  • June 2021:External Link​ Schaughency KCL, Watkins EY, Barnes S, Smith JD, Forrest LJ, Christopher PK, Anke KM, Sikka R, Pecko JA, Cox KL. Financial Costs to the Army for Suicides by Newly Enlisted Soldiers.  Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 2021 June; 51(5):907-915.
  • June 2021:External Link​ Schaughency KCL, Watkins EY, Preston SL. (2021). Is Suicide a Social Phenomenon during the COVID-19 Pandemic? Differences by Birth Cohort on Suicide among Active Component Army Soldiers, 1 January 2000 – 4 June 2021. MSMR. 2021;28(9):8-12. PMID: 34806854.
  • July 2021:External Link​ Beymer MR, Reagan JJ, Rabbitt MP, Webster AE, Watkins EY. Association between Food Insecurity, Mental Health, and Intentions to Leave the U.S. Army in a Cross-Sectional Sample of U.S. Soldiers. J Nutr. 2021 Jul 1; 151(7): 2051-2058. PMID: 33982122.
  • July 2021:External Link​ Beymer MR, Hill CG, Perry MA, Johnson LD, Jarvis BP, Pecko JA, Humphries J, Watkins EY. Pornography Use and Intimate Partner Violence among a Sample of U.S. Army Soldiers in 2018: A Cross-Sectional Study.  Arch Sex Behav. 2021 Jul; 50(5): 2245-2251.  PMID: 34169377.
  • July 2021:​External Link​ Hauschild VD, Rappole CA, Forrest LJ, Dada EO, Beymer MR, Grier T, Jones BH. Comparison of Injuries Between US Army Paratroopers and their Non-Paratrooper Soldier Counterparts. BMJ Mil Health. 2021 Jul. PMID: 34244378.
  • August 2021:External Link Abdur-Rahman I, Watkins EY, Jarvis BP, Beymer MR, Schoenbaum M, Bossarte RM, Pecko JA, Cox K. (2021 Aug) Mortality among U.S. Army Soldiers within 18 Months of Separation. Mil Med. 2021 Aug 28; 186(9-10): Pages e988-e995. PMID: 33230545.
  • September 2021:External Link​ Kaplansky GF, Ackah-Toffey L, Beymer MR, Schaughency KCL. Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Association between Perceived Barriers to Behavioral Health Care and Intentions to Leave the US Army. MSMR. 2021 Sep; 28(9):2-7. PMID:34806853.
  • December 2021:​External Link Smith JD, Schaughency KCL, Christopher P, Watkins EY, Anke KM. Time to Suicide and Suicide Attempt among Army Enlisted Soldiers' First Year of Service.  Military Behavioral Health. 2021 Dec; 9(2): 198-205. 


  • June 2020:External Link​ Hill CG, Beymer MR, Jarvis BP, Smith JD, Nichols JN, Mysliwiec V, Pecko JA, Humphries J, Watkins EY.  A Cross-Sectional Examination of the Association Between Social Media Use and Sleep Among a Sample of U.S. Army Soldiers. Mil Med. 2020 June 8; 185(5-6): e694-e702.  
  • August 2020:External Link​ Forys-Donahue, KL, Brooks RD, Beymer MR, Pecko J. The Association between Nutrition and Behavioral Health in a U.S. Army Population.  Public Health Nutr. 2020 August; 23(17): 3059-3066.  


  • January 2019:​External Link​ Sznajder KK, Abdur-Rahman I, Watkins EY, Mancha BE, Anke K, Kateley K, Rattigan M, Bell AM.  Characterizing Sexual Assault among Female U.S. Soldiers with Suicidal Behavior.  Military Behavior Health. 2019 January; 7(3): 268-278. ​

Communication Products: 

  • January 2024:​ Is it Just Post-Holiday Blues or is it More Serious?
  • October 2023:​ Military Life is Stressful; Depression Screening Brings Help
  • September 2023:​ Preventing Suicide through Social Connectedness
  • July 2023:​ Defense Public Health Experts Investigate Whether Minority Group Service Members Are More Likely to Experience Behavioral Health Problems
  • March 2023: Drugs and Alcohol - Military Psychologist Talks Facts, Prevention of Substance, Alcohol Misuse among Service Members 
  • January 2023:​ Military Public Health Experts Provide Tips for Leaders to Improve Medical Readiness  
  • December 2022:  Army Experts Highlight Findings, Recommendations from 10 Years of Suicide Studies 
  • December 2022: Stigma of Behavioral Health - Army Experts: Mixed Messages Can Fuel Stigma, Prevent Soldiers from Accessing Behavioral Healthcare
  • September 2022: Suicide Prevention Lessons Learned - Army Experts Highlight Findings, Recommendations from 10 Years of Suicide Studies 
  • September 2021:​ Suicide Warning Signs - Recognizing Suicide Warning Signs, Stressors Can Save Lives - Even Your Own 
  • April 2021:​​ Lessons Learned from 10 Years of EPICONs 

For more information: Behavioral and Social Health Outcomes Practice (BSHOP)​