Industrial Hygiene

 Mold & Indoor Air Quality

Last Updated: December 06, 2023

​​​ Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures and is not limited to mold. Industrial Hygienists typically conduct IAQ surveys upon request. Mold growth issues may be a part of an IAQ issue and may be addressed at the same time. Mold growth can occur in any indoor space and is often caused by numerous issues including but not limited to heating, ventilating and air conditioning, water intrusion (flooding, roof leaks, and plumbing issues), improper maintenance, and exposure to weather.


- Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

- Mold Town Hall ToolkitExternal Link (milSuite, CAC login required)

Table of Contents

    Information for Service Members, Families, Civilians, & Contractors
    Banner for Information for Service Members, Families, Civilians, & Contractors

    Indoor Air Pollution

    Indoor Air Quality refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. Understanding and controlling common pollutants indoors can help reduce the risk of indoor health concerns.

    Health effects from indoor air pollutants may be experienced soon after exposure or, possibly, years later. Common IAQ-related topics include asthma, mold, radon, and others. Find out more about common IAQ-related topics at the 

    Environmental Protection Agency's IAQ pageExternal Link.

    Facts about Mold

    • Molds can be found almost anywhere. 
    • They can grow on virtually any substance where moisture is present. 
    • Molds reproduce by means of tiny spores; the spores are invisible to the naked eye and float through outdoor and indoor air.
    • There are many types of mold, and none of them will grow without moisture.​
    • ​​Outdoors - 
      • Molds play a part in nature by breaking down dead organic matter such as fallen leaves and dead trees. 
    • Indoors - 
      • There is no practical way to eliminate all mold and mold spores in the indoor environment.
      • The way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture.  

    Video: Protect Your Family from Mold Exposure​

    ​If you do not see the video below please try this link​External Link


    Strategies to Prevent Mold Growth

    Moisture control is the key to mold control.

    • ACT QUICKLY to clean up leaks or spills. If wet or damp materials are dried 24-48 hours after a leak or spill happens, in most cases mold will not grow.
    • Clean and repair roof gutters regularly.
    • Keep air conditioning drip pans clean and drain lines unobstructed and flowing properly.
    • If possible, keep indoor humidity below 60% (ideally between 30% & 50%) relative humidity.
    • Vent appliances that produce moisture such as clothes dryers, stoves, and kerosene heaters.
    • Use air conditioners and/or de-humidifiers when needed to maintain indoor humidity below 60%; including when home is not occupied (e.g. while at work, while on vacation).
    • Run the exhaust fan or open a window when showering. 
    • Increase ventilation or air movement by opening doors and windows, when practical (not while the air conditioning is on). Use fans when needed.

    Health Concerns

    If you have health concerns about molds consult your healthcare provider. Molds have the potential to cause health problems. The color of mold is NOT an indicator of its potential to cause negative health effects. Molds produce allergens (substances that can cause allergic reactions) and irritants. Inhaling or touching mold or mold spores may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Allergic responses include symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, red eyes, and skin rash.

    Allergic reactions to mold are common. They can be immediate or delayed. Molds can also cause asthma attacks in people with asthma who are allergic to mold. In addition, mold exposure can irritate the eyes, skin, nose, throat, and lungs of both mold-allergic and non-allergic people. Symptoms other than the allergic and irritant types are not commonly reported as a result of inhaling mold. Research on mold and health effects is ongoing.

    Check out this tip sheet from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Eight Tips for Keeping a Healthy HomeExternal Link.

    What to Do if You have Mold Growth

    In government housing: Contact your facility manager for assistance. 

    In your workplace: Talk to your supervisor.

    Indoor mold growth can and should be prevented or controlled by controlling moisture indoors. If there is mold growth in your home, you must clean up the mold and fix the water problem. If you clean up the mold, but don't fix the water problem, then, most likely, the mold problem will come back. Any obvious water leaks or similar sources of moisture should be correctly quickly to prevent mold growth.

    Visible mold on hard surfaces such as tile or vinyl should be removed through surface cleaning with a detergent or soap solution. Mold on porous materials such as ceiling tile or wallboard requires replacement of the contaminated materials, and may need professional removal with appropriate worker protection.​

    More Information

    Healthy Homes PrinciplesExternal Link - National Center for Healthy Housing

    Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)External Link - United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    Flood Cleanup: Protecting Indoor Air QualityExternal Link – EPA

    Local Air Quality ConditionsExternal Link - AirNow (EPA)

    MoldExternal Link – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Mold and Your HomeExternal Link – EPA

    Mold Flyer (fillable with local contact information) - APHC

    Indoor Air Quality and Mold Sample Result Fact Sheet – APHC

    RadonExternal Link - EPA

    What you Need to Know About MoldExternal Link – Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC)

    Post-Mold Remediation Household Goods Evaluation and Cleaning Fact Sheet- APHC

    ***Example screening and assessment forms***External Link

    Mold Recognition, Evaluation, & Control

    Ceiling tiles, paper-covered gypsum wallboard (drywall), structural wood, and other cellulose-containing surfaces should be given careful attention during a visual inspection. Ventilation systems should be visually checked for damp conditions and/or mold growth on system components such as filters, insulation, and coils/fins, as well as for overall cleanliness.

    • Determine the total surface area of visible mold affected (square feet).
    • Consider the possibility of hidden mold.
    • Clean up small mold problems and investigate and repair moisture problems before they become large problems.
    • Select remediation personnel/team based on the assessment.
    • Investigate areas associated with occupant complaints.
    • Identify source(s) or cause of water intrusion or moisture problem(s).
    • Note type, location and amount of water-damaged materials (wallboard, carpet, etc.).
    • Check inside air ducts and air handling unit (i.e., condensate drain pans).

    A visual inspection is the most important initial step in identifying a possible mold problem and in determining remedial strategies. The extent of any water damage and mold growth should be visually assessed and the affected building materials identified. A visual inspection should also include observations of hidden areas where damages may be present, such as crawl spaces, attics, and behind wallboard. Carpet backing and padding, wallpaper, moldings (e.g., baseboards), insulation and other materials that are suspected of hiding mold growth should also be assessed.

    Air sampling may be necessary if an individual(s) has been diagnosed with a disease that is or may be associated with mold exposure (e.g., aspergillosis) and the occupational health physician/medical practitioner desires to confirm the causative agent.

    Learn more from APHC's Technical Guide 278 (TG278), Mold Assessment Guide, October 2018.

    Mold Remediation & Personal Protective Equipment

    Mold removal guidelines are based on a number of factors like the size of the affected area and the material the mold is growing on. Consult Appendix B: Mold Remediation Guidelines, in TG278 for further guidance or TG 277 for Army Facilities Management remediation Guidance.

    Laboratory Certifications

    The Army recognizes culture and direct microscopic exam results using either an American Industrial Hygiene Associate (AIHA) –Lab Accreditation ProgramsExternal Link, or LLC Environmental Microbiology Laboratory Accreditation Program (EMLAP)External Link -accredited lab or equivalent.

    American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standards

    These may be purchased from ASHRAEExternal Link or viewed hereExternal Link for free.

    Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (62.1 and 62.2- 2016)

    Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy (55-2017)

    More Information

    Army Facilities Management, Technical Guide 277 – APHC

    Control of Legionella (Fact Sheet 55-022-0311) – APHC

    Efflorescence (Fact Sheet 55-022-0211) – APHC

    Formaldehyde - Deployment Occupational and Environmental Health Concerns (Fact Sheet 55-012-1011) – APHC

    Hurricane Response PPE - Information Paper – APHC

    Indoor Air QualityExternal Link – Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

    Mold Decision Making Tree & Logic Notes – APHC

    Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial BuildingsExternal Link - EPA

    Mold Resource CenterExternal Link – The American Industrial Hygiene Association

    Mold SamplingExternal Link – EPA

    Protecting Soldiers and Families from Potential Health Impacts Related to Residential Indoor Environmental Mold ExposureExternal Link - OTSG/MEDCOM Policy Memo 19-026 (milSuite CAC required)

    Radon Toolkit for Public Health ProfessionalsExternal Link - CDC

    Whole Building Design GuideExternal Link – part of the National Institute of Building Sciences

    Mold Remediation and Clearance Tip Sheet- APHC

     Information for Healthcare Providers

    Evaluate Patients

    Evaluate patients presenting with symptoms of asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, rhinitis, or rhinosinusitis with the appropriate diagnostic tests for these disorders.  If an evaluation reveals that patient symptoms could be associated with damp housing conditions, healthcare providers will conduct a two-part interview to assist in determining whether or not there is justification for a building assessment focused on moisture/fungal growth issues..

    If Applicable, Recommend Home Assessment

    If applicable, notify the patient that a home assessment is recommended.  Provide the patient with contact information for Preventive Medicine Services/Public Health Department to assist with coordinating a home assessment.  Notify the installation Preventive Medicine/Public Health Department of all health care provider-recommended home assessments, to include the location of residence.

    More Information

    Indoor Air Quality Health Complaints: An Integrated Clinical and Environmental Approach - APHC

    Guidance for Clinicians on the Recognition and Management of Health Effects Related to Mold Exposure and Moisture IndoorsExternal Link - EPA

    MoldExternal Link – National Library of Medicine

    Mold and Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for CliniciansExternal Link - Army Medicine (milSuite CAC required)

    Resources for Health ProfessionalsExternal Link – EPA

    State Resources

    California – Mold and DampnessExternal Link

    New York – Mold and Your Home: What you need to knowExternal Link

    New York State Department of Labor Mold ProgramExternal Link

    Minnesota Department of Health – Mold and MoistureExternal Link

     DCPH-A IH Field Services can help Installation IHs by providing  comprehensive IAQ surveys, in-depth studies, and desktop or onsite consultations upon request. 

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